How is beer made? Whether you love sipping a cold beer on a sunny afternoon or can’t stand the taste of alcohol, it’s fascinating to understand the science behind the brewing process. Science plays a crucial role in determining the type of beer, the various flavors, and even its alcoholic content. In this article, we will explore the intricate science behind the art of brewing, taking a closer look at the ingredients, such as water, malted grains, hops, and yeast, and how they come together to create the perfect brew. We will also delve into the process of fermentation, where yeast transforms glucose into alcohol and carbonation, and how specific factors like temperature, mineral content, and fermentation duration shape the final flavor profile of the beer. So, grab a cold one and join us on this scientific journey into the fascinating world of beer brewing!

How Beer is Made

This image is property of


When it comes to brewing beer, there are four main ingredients that play a crucial role in the final product: water, malted grains, hops, and yeast. Each of these ingredients has its own unique characteristics and contributes to the overall flavor and brewing process of beer.


Water is the primary component of beer and makes up the majority of its composition. The mineral content in the water used for brewing can have a significant impact on the final product. Calcium and magnesium, also known as hardness, affect how yeast grows and metabolizes the sugar in the brew. Bicarbonate, or HCO3, can also influence the pH level of the beer during fermentation.

The mineral content in the water can vary depending on the source, and brewers often take this into account when determining the type of beer they want to brew. For example, if you’re looking to brew a beer that has a more caramel or toasty flavor, you may need to use water with higher levels of hardness.

Malted Grains

Malted grains are another essential ingredient in beer production. These grains, typically barley, undergo a roasting process to develop their flavor. The degree of roasting can vary, leading to differences in the flavor profile of the final beer.

Darker roasted grains result in grains with more degraded glucose molecules, leading to a darker beer. Lighter roasted grains, on the other hand, provide a lighter color and flavor. The selection and roasting process of the malted grains have a significant impact on the final taste of the beer.


Hops are flowers from the hop plant and play a vital role in modern beer brewing. While hops are primarily used for flavoring, they also have a stabilizing effect on the brew and contribute to the beer’s overall enjoyment.

Hops allow bubbles to be trapped in the head of the beer, giving it a fuller and more appealing appearance. Without hops, the beer would have less surface tension, resulting in no head and a bitter taste. Additionally, hops provide various flavor notes to the beer, enhancing the complexity of taste.

How Beer is Made


Yeast is arguably the most critical ingredient in the brewing process. It is responsible for the fermentation that converts glucose to alcohol and carbon dioxide. This process gives beer its alcoholic and carbonation properties.

There are two main types of yeast used in brewing: ale yeast and lager yeast. Ale yeast is top-fermenting and can ferment at higher temperatures, resulting in a broader range of esters, which are organic compounds that contribute to the flavor and aroma of beer. Lager yeast, on the other hand, is bottom-fermenting and ferments at lower temperatures, producing a crisper taste.

The choice of yeast can greatly impact the final taste of the beer, and brewers carefully select the type that will complement their desired flavor profile.

Factors Affecting Fermentation

Several factors can influence the fermentation process and the alcohol content of beer. These factors include mineral content, temperature, pitch rate of yeast, aeration, and the length of the fermentation process.

The mineral content of the water used in brewing can affect how the yeast metabolizes the sugar and ultimately impacts the fermentation process. Similarly, temperature plays a vital role in yeast activity, with different yeast strains thriving in specific temperature ranges.

The pitch rate of yeast refers to the amount of yeast added to the wort, and it can have a significant impact on fermentation. Aeration, or the exposure of the wort to oxygen, is another factor that influences yeast activity and the final flavor profile of the beer. Lastly, the length of the fermentation process can also affect the flavor development of the beer.

How Beer is Made

Control of Flavor Profile

Brewers have precise control over the flavor profile of their beer, thanks to various factors and the different molecules involved in the brewing process. The length of carbon chains in alcohols, type of esters, residual sulfurs, and carbonation levels all contribute to the final taste and characteristics of the beer.

By manipulating these factors, brewers can create a wide range of flavor profiles, ensuring that each beer they produce has its unique qualities. Esters, in particular, are responsible for many fruity and aromatic notes found in beer.

Popular Beers

Now that we understand the science behind brewing beer, let’s take a look at a few popular examples and delve into their specific brewing processes.


Budweiser is a well-known beer brand that uses pilsner malt, resulting in a lighter golden beer with a sweet hint. The fermentation temperature for Budweiser is set at 15 degrees Celsius for two weeks, using a yeast called S ov Arum. During fermentation, wood chips are added to aid yeast growth. The beer is heavily filtered and then carbonated to achieve the desired taste.


Guinness, a darker beer, uses both dark roasted malted grains and lightly roasted malts. The dark roasted grains contribute to the beer’s rich color, while the light roasted malts provide sugar for fermentation. The yeast strain used is S cerevisiae, and the fermentation process takes place at 18 degrees Celsius for two to three weeks. Nitrogen is used to carbonate the beer, resulting in a creamy taste due to smaller carbonation bubbles.

Roden Bock

Roden Bock is another beer with its unique brewing process. The malted grains used in Roden Bock include lighter roasted malts and wheat. The beer has low-to-medium hop levels and uses wild yeast with spontaneous mixed cultures for fermentation. Fermentation occurs at 18 degrees Celsius for two to three weeks. The beer is filtered, and fermentation continues in the bottle to add natural carbonation.

Gift Ideas for Beer Lovers

Keg Jacket Review

Case Club Floating Beer Pong Foam

NutriChef Insulated Keg Cooler

Kegco 3PDCK-5T Kegerator Kit

Four Tap Beer Dispenser Tower

Kegerator Beer Line Cleaning Kit


In conclusion, brewing beer is a science that involves various ingredients and processes. Water, malted grains, hops, and yeast each play a crucial role in the creation of beer, impacting its flavor, aroma, and alcoholic properties.

Factors such as mineral content, temperature, pitch rate of yeast, aeration, and the length of the fermentation process can all influence the final product. Brewers carefully control these variables to achieve the desired flavor profile.

As for popular beers, each has its unique brewing process, showcasing the precision and attention to detail that goes into creating a quality brew.

Ultimately, there is no need for long-term storage when it comes to beer, as its flavor profile is already completed at the time of brewing. Drink responsibly and enjoy the diverse range of flavors that the world of beer has to offer.

Hi, I’m Carlie Brandywine

Hi, I'm Carlie Brandywine, the author behind Total Beverage. As a passionate lover of coffee, beer, cocktails, spirits, tea, and all things beverage-related, I've created this website to share my expertise and recommendations with fellow enthusiasts. At Total Beverage, you'll find a curated selection of products and gift ideas tailored to the needs and tastes of beverage lovers. Whether you're in search of coffee equipment, wine-related products, bar accessories, or home bar equipment, I've got you covered. Join me on this journey as we explore the world of beverages and find everything you need to prepare, serve, and savor your favorite drinks. Cheers!